At workplace a process is generally looked upon as a bureaucratic structure to slow down the work and make managers look important. I think it is true many a times. But the real issue is not because processes are inappropriate but that the processes are incorrect. It depends on how you define a process. Working at a CMM Level 5 company and seeing processes being blindly followed I got a pretty good insight into issues with wrong processes. Working in academia where processes were pretty much absent, I got a good understanding of the importance of processes as well. Here is a definition I think works best while defining and creating processes -
"A process is an optimal natural way of doing work in the most efficient manner."
Thus processes should improve productivity and not lower it down. Any process that does so is incorrect.
Also, a process that is not backed by an automated system is not a process. It is simply an understanding which always changes as the people involved changes. Anything process written in just word documents are nothing but overheads.